Typically, the following style manuals are used by NYUSteinhardt students:. Your printer must produce consistently black letters and consistent margins. Sufficient darkness is also necessary for any supporting materials, such as tables, figures, drawings, pictures, etc.
Your dissertation will be published by ProQuest UMI which requires clear, high-contrast characters and images. The School and ProQuest UMI allow students to use typefaces that are between 10 and 12 points; however, because 10 point can appear too small in most typefaces, 12 point is generally preferred.
A smaller or condensed typeface can be used for tables that otherwise might not fit across a page within the correct margins, however, mixing typefaces is otherwise not recommended. Underlining or italics may be used for statistical symbols, book titles, or definitions but use either one or the other consistently throughout your manuscript, including tables. Headings should be underlined when appropriate and not italicized.
Bold type should not be used in the manuscript. Avoid leaving more than two inches of white space without type. This applies to tables and figures as well as to text. A table or figure should be inserted in the text as soon after it is first referred to where it will fit in its entirety on one page. Leave three blank lines between a table and text or text and a table; the same for figures.
Continue your text if you can fit at least four lines after it. You may have more than one table on a page and you may have a table, discussion, and a table. The same procedure applies to all illustrative material. APA style requires writers to double space all typed material, including the exceptions noted above. You have the option, however, of double spacing your references and block quotations; MLA style users also have this option.
The title page is counted as page one and the copyright page as page two, but numbers do not appear on them. Lower case roman numerals iii, iv, v, vi, etc. Beginning with page 1 of Chapter I, Arabic numbers are used and are continuous through the last page including all appendices.
Page numbers for all pages in the chapter, including the first page of each chapter or major section, should be placed three quarters of an inch from the top or bottom edge of the paper centered between the margins. You are required to follow that format exactly. You should include a copyright page with your name and copyright date in the middle of the page, centered left to right between the margins and top to bottom.
Please note that the copyright date is the year of your degree conferral. The copyright page is page ii of the pages preceding the text the title page is understood to be page i , but no number should appear on either the title page or the copyright page. Because a dissertation does not have an index, your Table of Contents should be as comprehensive as possible. Include all headings and subheadings, exactly as they appear in the text, up to and including Level 2.
Including lower level headings is optional. See sample Table of Contents in the next section. Note that the indentation of a heading used in the Table of Contents corresponds to the level of the heading. The following illustrates this:. You should supply the reader with lists of tables, figures, and any other illustrative material used in your dissertation. See the sample lists in the next section.
Lists of musical examples or reproductions of art, or information about films, follow the same form as that used for lists of tables and figures. Headings within the chapter should indicate the weight you assign to particular ideas by the form of headings suggested in the style manual you have selected or the form suggested below. Leave three blank lines i. If one heading immediately follows another, leave only one blank line a double space between the two.
Leave one blank line a double space after each heading. Capitalize the first letter of each word of headings except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions. The following is one way in which to order headings and to type them. Be sure that no heading appears at the bottom of a page without at least two lines of text beneath it. The Table of Contents will contain all Level 1 and Level 2 headings exactly as they appear in the text.
It is not necessary to include Level 3 or lower-level headings in the Table of Contents, but you may if it provides the reader with more useful information. Chapter numbers are upper case roman numerals with no period , e.
All other items requiring numbers should have Arabic numbers. Appendices, should be designated by capital letters, e. Use numbers or letters for other items only when necessary. Use 1 in the text and 1. If items in a numbered list run onto two or more lines, you may let the additional lines begin at the margin or indent the entire paragraph to the right of the numbers.
Numbers beginning a sentence, as well as numbers below 10 or, if you prefer, 12 should be spelled out when they appear within the text.
If a table, appendix, illustration, or graph is too wide or long, or both, to fit within the specified margins, have it reduced, or if textual material, type it using a smaller font. Whenever possible, avoid inserting tables which must be read by turning the book sideways. If such a table is necessary, be sure to insert it with the heading to the spine or binding. You may also use a condensed typeface.
For style guides other than APA, if you have more than one work by the same author, do not repeat his or her name over and over. Use ten underscore characters, ending with a period if the author is exactly the same as the previous one, or with a comma if the author is the first of a series of new authors, as shown below. Single space the entry; double space between entries. Indent the second and subsequent lines one-half inch.
Note that authors with two initials have a space after the period between each initial, e. If you wish to enter the chapter titles, headings and sub-headings yourself you can choose the Manual Table option which will pop up this box:. This is a little more laborious, but it gives you complete control over what goes in to the TOC and where. In some cases you may find a fourth Headings option and so on.
These options increase the more titles and sub-headings you highlight as being Headings. As already mentioned you can input the information directly in to the TOC in manual method , however, you can also highlight headings and other titles and add them to the table of contents in much the same way as the automatic method.
These options correspond to the level in the TOC as seen in the table of contents image above. Once written, highlight that new text and click on the Insert tab and go to Quick Parts button and choose Field:. You must then scroll down the list and choose TC. Once highlighted you then enter your chosen text in the Text entry; box in the middle column of the window.
You have to choose this option, not Automatic or Manual tables. You will then have a TOC that holds the title you had given it.
The manual method will give you some control over how the TOC will look. Once you click on the option to insert a TOC you will be presented with the Table of Contents window:. This window gives you a plethora of information and allows you to tweak your table of contents in almost any way you wish.
You can see that there are both Print and Web previews shown. You can alter the ways in which the TOC will look with regard to:. If you click on the Modify button a newly opened Style window below left will be presented. Click on Modify again and the Modify Style window below right appears for further formatting:. You have full control over how the TOC templates and indeed the table of contents itself will look.
This is a great way of creating tables of contents that can be methodlled to your subject matter, your theme and even your own personal outlook. You also have control over even more in-depth formatting with the Format button located at the bottom left corner of the Modify Styles window:.
As you can see this lists a far deeper level of formatting than can be seen in both the automatic and manual methods.
The table of contents should not contain listings for the pages that precede it, but it must list all parts of the thesis or dissertation that follow it. If relevant, be sure to list all appendices and a references section in your table of contents.
SAMPLE TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES vii CHAPTER I RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 1 entire dissertation (beginning with the title page and continuing through the last page of the last appendix). Maintain a 1½ inch right margin for the.
The table of contents is an index of everything in the dissertation - it should not include the title and contents page! A table of contents, TOC for short, lists in order the varying chapters of your dissertation all the way through to the bibliography and appendices. Do acknowledgements follow or precede the table of contents? What comes first – the appendix or the bibliography? you can read about the main components of a doctoral dissertation and their order. A doctoral dissertation is a book, and books have a particular structure. you can read about the main components of a doctoral dissertation.
This article helps the readers on how to create the best table of contents for dissertation. An important thing to note is that the article shares the creation of table of contents in word In order to update the table of contents, Select ‘Update Table’ in References tab. The contents pages will show up the structure of the dissertation. Any imbalance in space devoted to different sections of content will become apparent. This is a useful check on whether amalgamation of sections, or creation of further sections or sub-sections is needed.